The water crisis is having profound effects across the globe including significant rises in the cost of water. For example, starting on January 1, 2018, water and electricity bills in the UAE were subject to five percent VAT according to Gulf News. In England and Wales, it is reported that the average water bill is set to rise by 2%, or £9, for the 2018/2019 year. The city of Cape Town, South Africa has recently announced "the more you use, the more you pay" water prices in an effort to reduce water consumption during their historic drought. Water rates in the United States have climbed more than 50 percent on average over the last several years, according to a survey of water rates in 30 large US cities.